berklix.com logo

BSD-PIE icon

berklix.org logo

Eyes

BSD icon
Gnu icon
Linux icon

flag_uk_de_icon_v.gif

Disclaimer

BSN

Consol

[BSD Daemon]

FreeBSD & XFree86 on Toshiba Satellite S5100-603

Proud to be 100% Microsoft FREE
http://www.berklix.com/~jhs/hardware/toshiba/satellite.s5100-603/

Conversion to multi boot FreeBSD & X-Windows etc
(as well as keeping Microsoft XP Home Edition it's shipped with for residual PCMCIA & USB etc hardware testing.)

By Julian Stacey of   berklix.com logo

See Also

(Unix manuals end with a "See Also" section, but as you'r probably in a search for a different Toshiba model than mine, Here's references to others first.

Config Files:

Output Logs:

BIOS & Other Firmware Upgrades

  • Holding power button down for 5 secs forces it to turn off.
  • One entry to Toshiba BIOS is via Win XP - Toshiba are as addicted to Microsoft as an addict is to heroin.
  • Holding down ESC after power on, only results in being offered option to push F1 to boot Win/XP
  • Booting XP, going to [Tosh Manual] says if you hold F12 down after boot, you get a chance to force it to boot off cdrom. This is a one off effect, it is not remembered for next boot.

    It comes up with 5 graphics symbols which you can move between with cursor keys, & then push return - One of those 5 is DHCP, None of them seem to support booting off a USB RAM Stick - The last device might be another USB eg external drive boot - maybe ? Havent tried.

BIOS Upgrade If you select the 'Traditional' BIOS update, you don't need Windows. I have flashed my first upgrade that way booting via floppy, & my 2nd via cdrom using F12 boot selector).

2004.07.20 BIOS Upgrade

bios-120trad.zip
03/09/03.
Proc3
Off On with key 7 (or F7 ?)
key down till beeps
"Update BIOS"
insert
push key
off
Current 1.10
04/12/2002
1.20
04/8/2003

2009.03 BIOS upgrade

http://uk.computers.toshiba-europe.com/ 15/07/02
Description
30/06/04
SelectServ models not supported - June 2004

http://uk.computers.toshiba-europe.com/...
  • Family=Satellite
  • Product Series=Satellite 51XX
  • Model=Satellite 5100-503
  • Short Model No PS511E
BIOS Upgrade,
  • Date last modified=08/10/07
  • Version=1.30-TRAD
  • FTP-URL=bios-20071008133328.zip (produces MD5 (B130-E150.iso) = 458c30940c8419be2f1cf25d38bf5011 ) The 1540096 byte .iso contains no files, so all the stuff must be in the boot tracks.
  • Model=Satellite 5100-503, Satellite 5100-603"
Wrote it to cdrom, going the Non Windows route, booted the CD with F12 pressed. It offered 4 options:
  • 1 EC/KBC Upgrade
  • 2 EC/KBC Upgrade
  • 3 BIOS Upgrade
  • 4 BIOS Upgrade
I selected 3, It said:
CHGBIOS V4.26 C. 1994,2002 Toshiba
Please push the RESET SW (or turn AC power OFF/ON) to restart!
ROM Write Succesful!
Utility Finished!
BIOS ROM: 5100 V1.20
BIOS File: 5100 V1.30

A bluetooth upgrade I have not downloaded.

  • OS independent
  • FTP-URL bltstk-20070724121132.html
  • Date last modified 01/15/09
  • Company Toshiba
  • Type Bluetooth Stack
  • Subtype (none)
  • Size (Kb) 2
  • Version NA
  • Language Universal
  • Country World Wide
  • Description This is a redirection to the TOSHIBA Bluetooth information site. There you can download the newest Bluetooth Stack and you can get some information about Bluetooth. The URL of the Bluetooth Information Site is: http://aps2.toshiba-tro.de/bluetooth

A DVD-2 upgrade I have downloaded, as it lists my Satellite 5100-603, but I have not applied it.
http://uk.computers.toshiba-europe.com/... OS independent

Exploring The Laptop: MS, XP & BIOS

Toshiba's 2 recovery CDROMS:
  • Install Windows XP (but are themselves based on Windows 98)
  • Expert Mode (option 1), can install into a pre-existing bootable MBR/Fdisk partition.

PHYSICAL DISC EXCHANGE

When installing a new disc: put disc in frame with 4 screws loose, with label of disc down, disc hanging down out of chassis, tighten 4 screws. Do not tighten with disc label upward. Why: There's about a millimetre of slack, if its in wrong direction, drive wont align with laptop socket, it will be strained, & something will likely break or die later. Picture of disc in frame

FDISK - Partitioning

Original disc was: Toshiba MK6021GAS HDD2183 B ZE01 DC +5V 0.7A, 8.455MB (Cyl 16383, H16, S63) 60.00 GB (LBA 117,210,240 Sectors)

I tried to shrink the whole disc version of XP, using things like Partition Magic & FIPS, removing the swap file & defraging etc... Too much Microsoft pain. I booted off FreeBSD CDROMs, used the Fdisk there to create 4 Gig for XP, 3 Gig for a bootable FreeBSD, 40 Gig extra FreeBSD file system, final 3 Gig FreeBSD partition. Final one (Fdisk F4 partition is for multiple use:

  • alternate FreeBSD version &/or rescue partition if support problems with one release level,
  • or try NetBSD or Linux etc,
  • or as secure encrypted file system later
  • but most importantly, 'cos I think Microsoft probably still excretes at the end of disc, & destroys whatever data is there, at least Microsoft used to do that, making it very difficult for any other OS to survive co-residence with Microsoft.
Then I booted off Tosh Cds & installed Microsoft XP in 4 gig, (the default XP needs 1.7G minimum & installed FreeBSD in 3G To get FreeBSD 5.2.1 to install *from cdrom or elsewhere), you need FreeBSD's install option 6 (Escape to loader prompt) & then
set hw.pci.enable_io_modes = 0
boot
(You don't need it if you want FreeBSD 4.9 or 7.1 though.) After it's installed, use Option 6 once more by hand to boot the fresh installed FreeBSD from hard disc, then login &
cd /boot ; echo "hw.pci.enable_io_modes = 0" > loader.conf
I have not yet changed anything in /boot/device.hints though I saw another posting re another laptop told someone re. using APM instead:
You need to load APM in /boot/loader.conf. Just add the line: apm_load="YES" Then, add the line hint.acpi.disabled="1" to /boot/device.hints. That should do the trick.

Install of Windows-XP then FreeBSD-6.1 on new 120 Gig disc.

I removed the 60G disc & installed a virginal 120 G Samsung from sealed packet. Took the 2 MS CDROMs labelled as Recovery, Reinstalled MS-XP Home. It did Not ask for any licence numbers (maybe it was in BIOS ?) Then tried "Start" "My Computer" & in "Local Disk" Window, after clicking on each of C: D: E: F:, saw in "Details" that each of the 4 had 27.9 Gig (ie all of the 120 Gig disc). reboot XP via F12, select "2"=Expert mode not 1=Recover entire hard disk set to 7G I have installed my new 120 G disc in the laptop. I first installed the 2 Toshiba CDROMS marked "Product Recovery" to install a 7 Gig Win-XP partition, then I used the rest of disc for FreeBSD. At no time did I type in any MS licence numbers, nor use any special software ! Maybe numbers were stored in CMOS, or more likely CD is only usable with Tosh hardware (think I've seen that before), & all Tosh hardware is bundled licensed for MS.
After removal of this disc, & mounting on another 7.1-RELEASE host:
fdisk da0
******* Working on device /dev/da0 *******
parameters extracted from in-core disklabel are:
cylinders=14593 heads=255 sectors/track=63 (16065 blks/cyl)

Figures below won't work with BIOS for partitions not in cyl 1
parameters to be used for BIOS calculations are:
cylinders=14593 heads=255 sectors/track=63 (16065 blks/cyl)

Media sector size is 512
Warning: BIOS sector numbering starts with sector 1
Information from DOS bootblock is:
The data for partition 1 is:
sysid 12 (0x0c),(DOS or Windows 95 with 32 bit FAT (LBA))
    start 63, size 20482812 (10001 Meg), flag 0
        beg: cyl 0/ head 1/ sector 1;
        end: cyl 1023/ head 254/ sector 63
The data for partition 2 is:
sysid 165 (0xa5),(FreeBSD/NetBSD/386BSD)
    start 20482875, size 14329980 (6997 Meg), flag 80 (active)
        beg: cyl 1023/ head 255/ sector 63;
        end: cyl 1023/ head 254/ sector 63
The data for partition 3 is:
sysid 165 (0xa5),(FreeBSD/NetBSD/386BSD)
    start 34812855, size 185293710 (90475 Meg), flag 0
        beg: cyl 1023/ head 255/ sector 63;
        end: cyl 1023/ head 254/ sector 63
The data for partition 4 is:
sysid 165 (0xa5),(FreeBSD/NetBSD/386BSD)
    start 220106565, size 14329980 (6997 Meg), flag 0
        beg: cyl 1023/ head 255/ sector 63;
        end: cyl 1023/ head 254/ sector 63

Install of Windows-XP then FreeBSD-7.1 on new larger 250 Gig disc.

2009.03.05
WD2500BEVE 250G drive from Bauers 75 Euro
Installed
Says something about Intel Boot Agent & 137 Gig
Around now says something about partiton already active
Boots cdrom
Option
1 Recover entire Hard disk
All stored data on your computer will be lost
2 Expert Recovery Mode
This is for PC experts only. Factory pre-installed
Software can be installed onto an existing (bootable) partition.
Started installing without asking me how much disc to allocate (I wanted to allocate 10G)
Click
Start
Right click My Computer
Local Disk C
2.6 G Used
31.2 G Free
D E F also all 31.2 G
Reboot
2 Expert Recovery Mode
Image=X:\00077000.GHO
Press any key to continue
Lots of Menus ... It shows Local Source Drive as 131071 Mb
16709 Cyl 255 Heads 63 Sectors.
I Couldnt figure how to get that Synaptics thing to install an XP partition of just 10G, so I booted FreeBSD 7.1-CD to use fdisk (going to later use fdisk type).
FBSD reported A geometry of 48521/16/63 for ad0 is incorrect
Geometry: 30401 cyls/255 heads/63 sectors = 488392065 sectors (238472MB)
Offset Size(ST) End Name PType Desc SubType Flags
0 63 62 - 12 unused 0  
63 65545137 65545199 ad0s1 7 fat 12  
65545200 202884885 268430084 ad0s2 4 extended DOS, LBS 15  
268430085 219967083 488397167 - 12 unused 0  
As an experiment to see if it would work, I told FreeBSD-7.1 to use the entire 250G disc. It did, & rebooted OK.
Tried to use fdisk to repartition but of course Fdisk multiuser in FreeBSD has been crippled for years & needs sysctl kern.geom.debugflags=16, so do it by booting from cdrom.
Allocate 10 Gig , Type=7 show as 7 in Subtype column, not Type Column !
Boot MS-XP CD 1=Expert -> Local -> Check -> Disk
Shows 131071 Meg. Local -> Partition -> From Image Scroll to 00077000.GHO It shows Part=1 Type=Primary ID=0c Description=Fat32 Label=Diskload Size=28615 Data Size=1636
OK
Select local destination drive Drive=1 Size=131Mb Select
destination partition Part=1 Type=Primary ID=a5 # = 165 = FreeBSD Description=Unknown Label= Size=238472 Data Size=238472
............ Local Disk From Image
Scroll to *.GHO OK 10000
Couldnt figure how to get it to accept just 10G, not whole disc
Boot BSD Start to install a 10G
Abort after writing Boot
XP CD Select destination partition
now shows Part=1 Size=9993, ID=a5 Part=New Size=121075
Scroll up to part=1,
Return,
Scroll to Yes
... It reports clone completed succesfully but it shows:
target partition type:a5 unknown 9993Mb It reboots itself, XP registrations comes up, goes through OK, then it hangs on F1 beeping intermittently
Booted FreeBSD CD, used fdisk 'T' to change type to 6 then back to 12, it now shows ptype=4 fat 32bit.LBA) SubType12,
I tried setting Type=1
that showed as
PType=4 fat (12 bit) SubType=1.
Something is wrong with column formatting in fdisk
Set to type=6 again,
set active boot
Reboot
Wont boot
Boot BSD CD
FDsik shows
PType=7 Desc=FAT SubType=12
Typing 12 S sets it to PType=4 FAT Desc=(32-bit,LBA 12
Something I did got XP to boot, now uses 10G.
Examining Old 120G disc:
The data for partition 1 is: sysid 12 (0x0c),(DOS or Windows 95 with 32 bit FAT (LBA))
---------------- I set F1=10G of XP, F2=15 G BSD, F3=200 G BSD, F4=13 G BSD,
F1 & F2 would boot, F4 repeatedly would install OK but not boot, BIOS would beep, perhaps because parition starts beyond the 128 G BIOS barrier.
I changed to F1=10G of XP, F2=15 G BSD, F3=13G G BSD, F4=200 G BSD, F2,3,4 would then all boot.
XP would not boot
Reinstall of XP
BIOS then saw nothing bootable except F1 XP
XP also fails to boot. Reinstall, still fails, Maybe FAT type wrong
Boot BSD CD
delete all partitions,
create 10G type 6,
fdisk shows it as Ptype=7, subtype=7, desc=fat
Set bootable
I guess that failed & I did an install to entire disk.
2009.03.07.
XP boots, it reports via "Start" My Computer" it is using 4 x 31.2G
Boot BSD CDROM, which reports it sees:
30401 cyls/255 heads/63 sectors = 488392075 sectors (238472MB)
0   63      62      -   12  unused  0
63  65545137    65545199    ad0s1   7   fat 12
65545200 202884885  268430084   ad0s2   4   extended DOS, LBA   15
268430085   219967083   488397167   -   12  unused  0

delete both partitions. create a single one with 10000m 12 s which reports 63 20466747 20466809 ad0s1 4 fat (32-bit,LBA) 12 W Cursor left to Yes Return At option to Install FreeBSD boot manager ESC It reports Wrote FDSIK partition out succesfully Power off Power in with F12 scroll right to CDROM Enter 2 Expert Recovery Return Return At prompt Local Return At prompt Disk Return At prompt From Image Return Scroll down to 00077000.GHO Return At prompt Disk 131071 Mb Return Wrote fdisk It shows New Size 131069 Which is Wrong Power Off

Boot BSD CD
A geometry of 484521/16/63 for ad0 is incorrect,
Using a more likely geometry.
Fdisk shows 10G (so why did XP see more?)
Delete all partitions
Create 10000m type 12
Create 15000m type 165 BSD
Install BSD
BSD reboots OK,
F1 Boots XP which still thinks it has 31.2G
Install XP into 10G slice
It boots, registrers name, reboots, only shows F1, no F2 & hangs beeping intermittently.
Boot BSD CD
Shows both slices.
Set F1 bootable with S + W
Reboot, Beeps & fails
Boot BSD CD
Install a standard MBR (no boot manager)
Reboot
XP boots now.
My Computer shows 9.74G
But reboot now no longer shows any choice of F1 F2
Boot BSD CD
The FreeBSD CD is still there in FDISK,
but no partition is marked bootable.
& no mount point within F2 BSD 
Mark F2 active,
Skip the MBR install
Reinstall BSD
Reboots into BSD without a choice of XP
though fdisknshows both
sysinstall
install boot manager
refused
sysctl kern.geom.debugflags=16
Wrote out FreeBSD boot manager
reboot
now do have a choice of F1 & F2
F1 XP boots OK with 10G
F2 BSD 7.1 boots OK
Install F3
Success
Boot XP to see if still OK, Yes
Finally got all 4 booting.


   

FreeBSD Boot Loader Option 2

Functionality seem to vary between the CDROM bootable version, & the hard disc installed versions:
  • FreeBSD 5.2.1-RELEASE CDROM: "Boot with ACPI Disabled"
  • FreeBSD 5.2.1-RELEASE: (On my F4) "Boot with ACPI Enabled" .
  • FreeBSD 5.2.1-RELEASE-p9: (on my F2) "Boot with ACPI Enabled"
Whether ACPI is needed seems to depend (reasonably) on what options I have enabled (or not) in /etc/loader.conf If & when I need it, it's because a hang occurs during booting, usually just after it says Setting hostname (while doing network config).

X-Windows

Quickest way to get a working config is Not (as I did) to use xf86cfg in visual mode, but instead use -textmode, set it for VES options to give a1600x1200, then switch to nvidia driver.

Using a FreeBSD 5.2.1 generic kernel, & generic /usr/ports/x11-servers/XFree86-4-Server I first got something using approx 1/3 width & height of screen, which seemed to be maybe around 1600 x 1200 or so, but crashed machine on exiting. I had to save the output X config file to another NFS'd host \cos it crashed immediately after the config tool exited. Next I built I built a custom kernel from (this master config file, common to all my hosts *so look for host name string "laps")) . & started tweaking the X config file. Then I installed current/ports/x11-servers/XFree86-4-Server X -probe output It was crashing on exit, both with my custom kernel, & generic kernel. Curious thing about the crash: once running X from xinit, if you do a `reboot` to avoid the crash on exit of X, the machine still hangs, so its probably something to do with returning hardware to its initial state. Holding power button down for 5 secs solves it. Rebooting with xdm enabled results in Fatal trap 12: page fault in kernel mode. Even single user reboot wouldn't come up any more. Then I powered up with option 2: No ACPI: Now xdm works, X sessions exit OK, & new X sessions start, & the thing does not crash. Maybe my BIOS is still configure with Micro$oft defaults, need to look at the BIOS tools when I compile em. Meantime need to turn off ACPI in /boot I guess However, fxp now reports timeout during boot & net & mouse response is damn slow. on my F2 partition: after building from /usr/src extracted with 'cvs -R export -r RELENG_5_2 src' producing a system uname -r reports as FreeBSD 5.2.1-p9 , I switched from /usr/ports/x11/XFree86 using code from http://xfree86.org/, to install from current/ports/x11/xorg/ & current/ports/x11-servers/xorg-server/ which uses code from http://x.org/ The keyboard is black plastic, & with an English layout (not American as per BIOS at boot) so cant just be relabelled with an indelible felt pen. keymap="uk.iso" in /etc/rc.conf fixes that. Under X one also need /root/xmodmaprc/english Middle mouse button My USB mouse with roller wheel in middle work OK on middle click, but this Linux guy had problems.

ETHERNET

dmesg
fxp0: <Intel 82801CAM (ICH3) Pro/100 VE Ethernet> port 0xdf40-0xdf7f mem 0xfceff
000-0xfcefffff irq 4 at device 8.0 on pci2
fxp0: Ethernet address 00:00:39:55:77:9e
miibus0: <MII bus> on fxp0
inphy0: <i82562ET 10/100 media interface> on miibus0
inphy0: 10baseT, 10baseT-FDX, 100baseTX, 100baseTX-FDX, auto
Used to stop working after a while with some /boot/loader.conf options, but OK now, So maybe it was just Toshiba BIOS timeout on idle before.

NOT LOOKED AT YET

  • current/src/sys/conf/files.i386 ..... i386/acpica/acpi_toshiba.c
  • http://www.nvidia.com/object/freebsd_1.0-6113.html
  • WaveLAN
  • Firewire
  • Illuminating the mouse touch pad

SOUND

Works OK. on FreeBSD-RELEASE-6.1 & 7.1 with "device snd_ich"

USB

The internal ports work fine, I did some timings with this memory stick
Permanent label: CELLDISK PRO 256 MB V.M2
Sticky Label, wearing off: E-D900 01 5231 B1 256 MB V.M2 Made in Korea
Results
Between each write & read, to flush any remnant disc file system cache I do
umount /stick.dos ; mount /stick.dos
host=laps host-interface=left-side partition=dos: mode=write:
127795200 bytes / 294 sec : 434677 bytes /sec = 3477416 bits /sec
host=laps host-interface=left-side partition=dos mode=read
127795200 bytes / 250 secs = 511180 bytes /sec = 4089440 bits /sec
host=laps host-interface=left-side partition=bsd: mode=write:
117719040 bytes / 119 secs = 989235 bytes /sec = 7913880 bits /sec
host=laps host-interface=left-side partition=bsd mode=read
117719040 bytes / 112 secs = 1051062 bytes /sec = 8408496 bits /sec
With a Belkin Card bus 32 bit (PCMCIA type slot) "Hi-Speed USB 2.0 Notebook Card" P81161-C
(with gold edge connector so wider bus, FreeBSD-current writing a BSD FS crashes after 67 Meg - card is damn hot, well its a hot laptop !
( My laptop, or FreeBSD, doesn't seem to always get on with the Belkin USB 2.0 adapter - it runs too hot to hold & BSD sometimes crashes (& my brother's Belkin died shortly after use in my laptop, whereas his Belkin USB had until then run fine in his near identical Toshiba that runs just MS-XP (I suspect BSD is running the card in full power mode, with no standby time or similar) )

A shorter write of 20M: 20520960 bytes / 26 seconds = 789267 bytes /sec = 6314136 bits /sec

Theoretical USB Top Speeds: From catalog.belkin.com USB 2.0 transfer rate of 480Mbps, 40 times faster than USB 1.1.

SD Memory Cards (eg for cameras)

Doesn't work for me yet with 6.1-RELEASE to 7.2-RELEASE. I had wondered if I'd just not read the right manual, but Warner wrote:
Subject: Re: Call for Testers: FreeBSD webcam driver (and more)
From: "M. Warner Losh" <imp @ bsdimp.com>
Date: Sat, 03 Feb 2007 10:40:00 -0700 (MST) (18:40 CET)
Cc: usb @ freebsd.org, rizzo @ icir.org, current @ freebsd.org

SD/MMC support for laptops is on its way...
Meantime they're read & writable via USB adaptor & pcmcia card adaptor.

BATTERY

A mail I jhs wrote 2010.04

I just dismantled the battery pack for my Toshiba satellite laptop,

Damn hard! For good skilled people only: push a mid sized watch makers screwdriver in long side wall, buit not deep, switch to larger driver & rotate 20 degrees, forcing the crack longer. It's not a press/ snap fit. its permanently platic welded, Mine Now held together with sellotape ... well what the hell, its inside.

Would be Hard to insert new batts in that I think: not wires but thin film flexible printed circuit board.

It uses 6 batteries of the same type also in my ACi 8700M Mirage Laptop

Mine had 3 banks of 2 cells in parallel. All banks at 4.12 Volts when fully charged. Li On 1.82 cm Diam, 6.44 cm long inc batt insulation. Power Pack Model PA3211U-1BRS PABAS021 rated at 10.8V 4AH.

No dead cells in my battery pack needing replacement. (well, unless one might be weak, & Voltage held up by other in parallel).

for FreeBSD/Linux: What intrigued me was the battery went non linear within gkrellm, when down to about 50% it was really empty, (no idea what it does on MS-Win) hence I wondered about a dead cell, now I guess its software to look at. red controller, that can tell laptop to play music (while the operating system is Off.

May be the power consumed in standby waiting for IR signal may be eating the battery. In the future if I want to preserve the battery while travelling, I will flip out the battery from the bay till I need it.

That lesson might apply to other laptops with external IR.

PS It's better Not to keep toping up Lithium Ion batteries, ie let your mobile phone with LiOn batts run low before recharging. Cheers, Julian -- Julian Stacey, BSD Unix Linux C Sys Eng Consultants Munich http://berklix.com Mail plain text, Not HTML quoted-printable Base64 http://www.asciiribbon.org

MAILS

From: Frédéric DUBOUCHET
I personally own a toshiba satellite 5100-503 and I need some lines to make it boot correctly (it won't boot without) note I didn't try the new bios... It's only needed for 5.x not for 4.9 as long as I know...
set hw.pci.enable_io_modes = 0
X is working without too much trouble (except some tweaking around EIDI) also watch out the mouse was USB for me not PS2.
couldn't make neither the sound card nor the SD card reader to work...
Sorry I can't help you any farther I sold the machine a couple of weeks ago...

HOT KEYS Under XP & BSD & X-Windows

  • XP
  • F Keys: when you want to run a slide show on tv and watch the picture on the laptop at the same time - OR run a show through a multi media projector and watch the laptop at same time, while giving a talk etc ... then you use the F keys to toggle between :- typically (may not be quite right, check)
  • 1) no picture on laptop but picture on big screen (or tv);
  • 2) picture on laptop but no picture on big screen (to allow you to edit or omit a picture you don't want your audience to see)
  • 3) picture on BOTH laptop and big screen.
  • 5) Screen Resolution
BSD:
  • Screen Resolution (X-Windows-XFree86: Ctl+Alt+ Numeric Plus & Minus)

PURCHASE AN INSTALLATION

Not all who want FreeBSD on their laptop/ notebook have enough time, skill & enthusiasm to do it. If you want to pay a Consultant to install &/or customise your laptop/ notebook to your requirements, or for other Unix work Contact me for a quotation I & certain other European & World wide BSD associates are available. (Only for BSD - not Microsoft).

Back To Top

Berklix.Net Computer Associates Domains Apache: Web Server FreeBSD: Operating System